Building Simulation: An International Journal

Article Title

Multiple influencing factors analysis of household energy consumption in high-rise residential buildings: Evidence from Hong Kong


high-rise residential building, energy consumption, multiple influencing factors, occupant behaviour, energy conservation


Buildings account for more than 90% of total electricity consumption in Hong Kong, one third of which comes from the residential sector. High-rise buildings dominate Hong Kong, but energy use in high-rise buildings has been insufficiently examined in previous studies, especially at the household or occupant level. This paper aims to explore the multiple factors that influence energy consumption in high-rise residential buildings, including the impact of occupant behaviours. The research was conducted through a questionnaire and face-to-face interviews with 135 households of a typical forty-floor residential building in Hong Kong. The survey examined technical and physical factors, human-influenced factors and social factors of energy consumption, including building information, social demographics, energy-related occupant behaviour modes and the residents’ energy-saving attitudes. The results show that the monthly electricity bills of households at the twentieth floor or lower were 26% higher than those of households at higher floors during spring, summer and autumn, but similar during winter. This difference was attributed to various occupant behaviours, such as operating air-conditioners and opening windows. These findings expand the knowledge of occupant behaviour in high-rise residential buildings and inform building energy conservation policy-making in Hong Kong.


Tsinghua University Press