Brain Science Advances


epileptic spasm, presurgical evaluation, surgical strategy


Epileptic spasm (ES) is one of the most common types of seizures in children. It is primarily characterized by brief axial contractions lasting less than 2 s and recurring in short clusters. It usually occurs in children of 3 to 12 months of age, although it can also occur after the age of 1 year. In general, children with ES develop other symptoms of epilepsy, such as tonic, tonic-clonic, or focal seizures, after 3 to 5 years of age. ES in children is often damaging and usually results in developmental regression. First-line treatments for spasm seizures include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and vigabatrin. However, many patients fail to respond to these medications, and continued to have spasms associated with progressive neurodevelopmental degeneration. Therefore, it is important to consider whether children with drug resistance meet surgical indications to consider surgical treatment in such conditions. In this study, we reviewed and summarized the importance of preoperative evaluation in order to provide surgical options for treatment of children with ES.