Brain Science Advances


migraine, nonpharmacological treatment, individual differences, neuroimaging


Migraine is a difficult disorder to identify with regard to its pathophysiological mechanisms, and its treatment has been primarily difficult owing to interindividual differences. Substantial rates of nonresponsiveness to medications are common, making migraine treatment complicated. In this review, we systematically analyzed recent studies concerning neuroimaging findings regarding the neurophysiology of migraine. We linked the current imaging research with anecdotal evidence from interindividual factors such as duration and pain intensity of migraine, age, gender, hormonal interplay, and genetics. These factors suggested the use of nonpharmacological therapies such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and placebo therapy for the treatment of migraine. Finally, we discussed how interindividual differences are related to such nondrug treatments.


Tsinghua University Press