exosomes, biology, biogenesis, therapy
Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a diameter of 30–100 nm, which are released into the extracellular space by fusion of multi- vesicular and plasma membranes. These vesicles actually play a distinct role in cell communication, although they were considered as membrane debris in the past. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-dependent and ESCRT-independent mechanisms are currently considered to be involved in the sorting of exosomes, and the release of exosomes is related to the members of Rab protein family and SNARE family. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of exosomes has become apparent. For example, via the direct transplantation of exosomes, the ischemic area after stroke is reduced, and the neurological function is improved significantly. Furthermore, they can be used as effective drug delivery vehicles due to their unique characteristics such as low immunogenicity and nanometer size. In conclusion, exosomes provide a cell-free treatment for ischemic stroke.
Tsinghua University Press
Zhihan Zhu, Bikram Shah Kalyan, Lukui Chen. Therapeutic potential role of exosomes for ischemic stroke. Brain Science Advances 2019, 5(2): 128-143.