Brain Science Advances


donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine, Alzheimer’s disease


Current treatment paradigm in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves multiple approaches combining pharmacological and non- pharmacological intervention to mitigate the clinical symptoms, slow the progressive loss of cognitive and functional abilities, or modify the disease course. So far, beyond anti-cholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor, there are no newly approved medicines to treat AD. Under pharmacological treatment, the personal characteristic and the intra-individual therapeutic evaluations to examine various cognitive domains, behavioral and psychological problems, and global function should be considered when choosing any of AChEIs. The use of optimal dosage referring to the expected clinical outcomes and currently reported deficits from patient with AD has become an important issue in clinical treatment. Establishing and maintaining a strong therapeutic alliance to physician, patient, and caregiver is crucial and central to the comprehensive care in AD.


Tsinghua University Press