Article Title

Aerodynamic design, analysis, and validation techniques for the Tianwen-1 entry module


Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL), design and optimization of the entry module configuration, calculations and experiments of aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics, low-frequency free oscillation under large separation flow, special aerodynamic coupling problems, flight data


The clear differences between the atmosphere of Mars and the Earth coupled with the lack of a domestic research basis were significant challenges for the aerodynamic prediction and verification of Tianwen-1. In addition, the Mars entry, descent, and landing (EDL) mission led to specific requirements for the accuracy of the aerodynamic deceleration performance, stability, aerothermal heating, and various complex aerodynamic coupling problems of the entry module. This study analyzes the key and difficult aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic problems related to the Mars EDL process. Then, the study process and results of the design and optimization of the entry module configuration are presented along with the calculations and experiments used to obtain the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics in the Martian atmosphere. In addition, the simulation and verification of the low-frequency free oscillation characteristics under a large separation flow are described, and some special aerodynamic coupling problems such as the aeroelastic buffeting response of the trim tab are discussed. Finally, the atmospheric parameters and aerodynamic characteristics obtained from the flight data of the Tianwen-1 entry module are compared with the design data. The data obtained from the aerodynamic design, analysis, and verification of the Tianwen-1 entry module all meet the engineering requirements. In particular, the flight data results for the atmospheric parameters, trim angles of attack, and trim axial forces are within the envelopes of the prediction deviation zones.